Robin Backlund, BHSc
A blood pressure of 98 over 78 (98/78) mmHg indicates that your blood pressure is PERFECTLY NORMAL, and on par with the American Heart Association guidelines.
Such a reading is optimal across diverse groups—children, adults, the elderly, and pregnant individuals.
However, consistently monitoring blood pressure is advisable to ensure long-term health.
Bear in mind that blood pressure can fluctuate based on factors like age, gender, weight, and overall well-being, with ‘ideal’ values sometimes differing based on personal medical history and ongoing health situations.
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What does a 98 over 78 (98/78) blood pressure mean?
The blood pressure reading 98/78 indicates that the person in question has an ideal blood pressure.
According to a study from Boston University School of Medicine, if a person has blood pressure within the range of [90/60] and [120/80], it means that the person has perfect blood pressure. 1
Here is a blood pressure chart according to the latest guidelines of American Heart Association (AHA).
mm Hg [upper #]
mm Hg [lower #]
Less than 80
Less than 50
Less than 90
Less than 60
Less than 120
Less than 80
Less than 80
Hypertension STAGE 1
Hypertension STAGE 2
140 or higher
90 or higher
Consult your doctor immediately
Higher than 180
Higher than 120
By extension, the blood pressure value of 98 over 78 mmHg means that the person is not at a prominent risk of any heart disease. Their heart is functioning the way a healthy person’s heart should, which is significantly beneficial for them.
Ideal blood pressure is the state in which the blood flowing through the blood vessels applies just the right amount of pressure to the vessel walls and the heart.
As a result of this, the heart can pump blood to all parts of the body quite effectively. 98/78 signifies that the lifestyle you have adapted to is well-supported by your body and health.
Furthermore, if you were to maintain the same lifestyle, it would reduce the potential risk of chronic heart disease in your life.
Having healthy blood pressure can improve your overall health in more ways than one. Some of the benefits supported by your body for having ideal blood pressure include the following:
- An ideal blood pressure protects you from imminent risks of heart problems.
- It is an indication that you are not suffering from diabetes and that your endocrine glands are functioning perfectly.
- Ideal blood pressure helps you maintain the ideal body weight for you.
- Having an ideal blood pressure relatively decreases the possibility of heart and kidney failure.
- It will help in the regulation of minerals within your body.
- Ideal blood pressure decreases the possibility of stroke for you.
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What should you do if you have 98/78 blood pressure?
Here is a set-by-step procedure to follow when you figure out you have a blood pressure of 98 over 78 mmHg.
1. Consult your doctor for accurate blood pressure reading
If your blood is 98/78 and you have checked the same in your home setup, it is highly recommended to get it checked at your doctor’s office.
A trained professional has to clinically assess your condition and confirm that your 98/78 is, in fact, clinically valid.
There are instances when your reading at home setup might give you a reading which is incorrectly reported. It could be because of an error in reading it, damage to your device, your physical or mental condition on that particular day, etc.
Therefore, a doctor has to assess it over the course of 7 – 30 days periodically before he/she can confirm the accurate stage of your blood pressure.
In a study from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, researchers found something interesting about blood pressure readings.
Sometimes, when people are at the doctor’s office, their blood pressure reads high, but it’s normal when they check it elsewhere. They call this white coat hypertension.
On the flip side, some folks show normal readings at the doctor’s but have high readings at home or other places. This is known as masked hypertension. 2
All these conditions are linked to physiology and psychology and, therefore, better to be validated by a doctor.
2. Maintain your healthy blood pressure with these lifestyle choices
The blood pressure readings of 98 over 78 mmHg are relatively good, even taking into consideration the entire range of the ideal blood pressure.
But just because it is good now does not mean that things won’t change over time. Considering that distinct possibility, you should stick to a lifestyle that will help keep you fit and support your health.
According to Harvard Health Publicaton, below are some of the ways to maintain a healthy blood pressure 3.
- Try to maintain that it is in equilibrium with your age and lifestyle.
- Eat healthy meals and exercise regularly.
- Regulate the consumption of salts.
- Support the intake of natural supplements whenever you feel those to be necessary for your body.
- Take proper rest every day. Your rest and sleep should be priorities for you.
- Quit smoking and keep your alcohol consumption in a check.
- Do not subject yourself to excess stress and anxiety, or this might turn into an emotional burden for you.
3. Say “NO” to blood pressure medications
At this stage, you don’t need any medications and all thanks to those perfect numbers you have seen.
All you can do is indulge in a healthy amount of workouts and other physical activities with a good watch over general health.
Routine health checkups and periodic blood pressure measurements are critical at this stage, which is what most people miss doing firsthand.
A study from the University of Pisa found that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction might be useful in managing your blood pressure levels. You may incorporate techniques like yoga and meditation at this stage to keep your blood pressure healthy at all times. 4
Unlike people with hyper or hypotension, you don’t need to actively regulate your blood pressure; however, passive efforts to indirectly keep it under control shall be followed.
Water pills and diuretics are sometimes recommended by doctors after assessing the electrolyte concentration in your body. However, in most cases, you may also don’t want it.
If you are a little lazy to hit the gym for your cardio, then we have included some products in the dietary supplement class that you can consider.
4. Plan a diet specifically for 98/78 blood pressure
Your blood pressure and overall health are directly related to the type of food consumed daily.
Therefore, if you were to keep your dietary habits in a firm check and eat healthy meals, that would significantly contribute to your overall health. It will be good for your body as well as your mind
Following are some of the facts that you should take into account before planning your diet:
- Regulate the consumption of sodium salts: Sodium is an important nutrient for the human body. And the concentration of this salt has a direct impact on your blood pressure. By regulating its intake, you can maintain your blood pressure.
- Caffeine: Caffeine-related products contribute to increasing the blood pressure of a person. If the consumption of these products is not kept in check, it may lead to high blood pressure.
- Drink plenty of water: Keep yourself hydrated all the time. This will help maintain the level of fluids and salt in your body.
- Alcohol: High consumption of alcohol can lead to low blood pressure. Besides this, the consumption of alcohol in excess can not serve any good purpose as it dehydrates your body rather rapidly.
- Herbs and spices: Support the intake of herbs and spices that will help maintain your ideal blood pressure. Many natural herbs can serve that purpose.
- Supplements: Do not hesitate to opt for natural supplements if your body lacks nutrients or minerals of any kind. Besides, these are the first things that physiotherapists advise individuals who suffer from problems in blood pressure because of a lack of minerals.
5. Evaluate the need for additional heart health tests
98/78 mmHg is a perfect value that one might want to see when their blood pressure is being checked. Still, does it mean you are perfectly fine? Should you conduct more studies to get a conclusive stat regarding your heart health?
Technically speaking, a perfect blood pressure reading isn’t the ultimate predictor of heart health. In fact, some people undergoing a heat attack may show no change in blood pressure or even exhibit hypotension.
However, blood pressure reading, in most cases, is a direct estimator of heart health. But the problem is that only a variation in reading would denote a cardiovascular problem.
This is why the physician opts for having an ECG or echocardiography in order to seek better clarity on your cardio health.
The above is often read in reference to your blood test reports and other health assessment parameters to draw a conclusion.
American College of Cardiology recommends in its guidelines to conduct a heart checkup every three years, especially if you are above 45 years of age, even if your blood pressure levels are normal. 5
6. Try natural supplements to support healthy blood pressure level
Sometimes managing blood pressure is all about supplementing your body with the right diet. Food is undoubtedly the best primary source to supplement your body.
However, in the current scenarios, we all know how much adultered our foodstuff is, and most of us are pushed towards processed foods to feed ourselves in this fast-paced world.
All these food are high in sugar and sodium and doesn’t contain any vital nutrients that are important for a healthy heart.
This is where some of the nutraceutical-based blood pressure supplements come in handy. These products combine all critical nutrients your heart craves, thereby assisting the better function of your cardiovascular system.
Generally, these supplements are a concoction of herbs, plant-based products, dairy products, and some animal products. They are 100% organic and natural and don’t contain any harmful chemicals.
If you are hearing about these segments of products for the first time, to start with, you may blindly go for Blood Pressure Support from Vita Balance Inc, Blood Pressure Optimizer from HFL, or Corsanum, marketed by PLT Group.
Blood Pressure Support
Blood Pressure Optimizer
Blood Pressure Support combines hawthorn berry, olive leaf, hibiscus, and some vitamins like C, B6, B12, niacin, and folate alongside a bunch of other medicinal herbs to support the healthy working of the heart.
Blood Pressure Optimizer has MegaNatural®-BP grape seed extract and Celery3nB™ celery seed extract alongside common vitamins and minerals, which can help increase your cardiovascular elasticity.
Corsanum is a refined combination of olive, iron, and grapevine alongside regular products like coriander, hawthorn, and oregano, all of which are foods known to maintain cardiovascular health.
The only one thing to keep in mind is that choose the best blood pressure supplement, because when it comes to the heart, there is no taking of risk!
So having an 98 over 78 mmHg is the ideal blood pressure, and you can keep doing whatever you have been doing so far.
In a review analysis from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, it was found that nutraceutical compounds could be a safer alternative to pharmaceuticals in managing heart health.6
You may now know the thrust areas of health to focus on and some diet plans that you may want to befriend.
What should you do when your blood pressure is 98/78 mmHg during pregnancy?
A blood pressure of 98/78 during pregnancy generally falls within the normal range.
However, blood pressure can fluctuate during pregnancy, and it’s important to consult with your healthcare provider for regular check-ups to ensure both maternal and fetal well-being.
A report in Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology highlights the significance of monitoring and managing blood pressure for the safety of both the mother and fetus. 7
While 98/78 is usually not a cause for concern, it’s good to keep track of your readings and report any sudden changes to your doctor.
Is blood pressure 98/78 mmHg normal for a men?
For men, a blood pressure reading of 98/78 is generally considered to be within the normal range.
However, individual health conditions can vary, and it is advisable to get regular check-ups, particularly if you have a history of cardiovascular issues or other health conditions that could impact blood pressure.
Is blood pressure 98/78 mmHg normal for a women?
For women, a blood pressure of 98 over 78 mmHg is generally considered to be in the normal range.
It’s always good to have regular check-ups, especially if you’re pregnant, menopausal, or have other health conditions that could impact your cardiovascular health.
Regular monitoring and consultations with your healthcare provider are key.
Is blood pressure 98/78 mmHg normal for an elderly?
In elderly individuals, a blood pressure of 98/78 is generally considered to be good.
However, blood pressure can fluctuate due to various factors such as medication, stress, and other health conditions.
Regular check-ups are recommended, especially for elderly individuals who are more prone to cardiovascular and other age-related health issues.
Is blood pressure 98/78 mmHg normal for a children?
For children, the normal range for blood pressure can vary depending on age, height, and gender.
Generally speaking, a blood pressure reading of 98 over 78 mmHg might be considered normal for older children and adolescents, but not for infants and toddlers.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) have published guidelines on blood pressure levels in children. 8
If a child’s blood pressure is consistently higher than what’s expected for their age, gender, and height on three separate occasions, they are said to have hypertension.
Newborns up to 1 month
60–90 mm Hg
20–60 mm Hg
87–105 mm Hg
53–66 mm Hg
95–105 mm Hg
53–66 mm Hg
95–110 mm Hg
56–70 mm Hg
97–112 mm Hg
57–71 mm Hg
112–128 mm Hg
66–80 mm Hg
Is blood pressure 98/78 mmHg normal for an adult?
For adults, a blood pressure of 98/78 is generally considered to be within the normal range.
However, “normal” can vary from person to person, and it’s essential to consider other factors like age, lifestyle, and existing medical conditions.
Regular monitoring and consultations with your healthcare provider are advisable for maintaining optimal health.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
What is the blood pressure?
Blood pressure is a vital health metric that gauges the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the arteries. It’s a primary indicator of cardiovascular health and is instrumental in ensuring our body receives the necessary oxygen and nutrients.
- The force exerted during heart contractions is termed systolic pressure.
- The pressure during the resting phase between heartbeats is called diastolic pressure.
- Blood pressure values are typically recorded in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
- Various critical factors such as age, diet, physical activity, stress, and genetics influence blood pressure levels.
- Consistent abnormal readings, whether high or low, can signal underlying health issues like hypertension or heart disease, making regular monitoring crucial.
What do the numbers on blood pressure readings chart mean?
The numbers on the blood pressure chart are a metric that helps you determine the health of your heart. A quick, concise and accurate judgement about your heart can be drawn based on the range, difference, and intensity of these numbers.
They are often divided into two numbers, called systolic (force of blood in your arteries when your heart beats) and diastolic (force exerted when the heart is resting between betas) measurements.
Based on these pair of numbers, the blood pressure reading is classified into seven stages:
- Very Low Blood Pressure (Severe Hypotension): Below 80/50
- Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension): 80/50 – 90/60
- Normal Blood Pressure: 91/61 – 119/79
- Pre-Hypertension (Elevated Blood Pressure): 120/80 – 139/89
- High Blood Pressure (Stage 1 Hypertension): 140/90 – 159/99
- High Blood Pressure (Stage 2 Hypertension): 160/100 – 180/120
- Hypertensive Crisis: Above 180/120
What is a normal blood pressure?
Normal blood pressure is a measure that indicates the optimal force of blood against the walls of our arteries, ensuring efficient circulation without undue stress on the cardiovascular system. It’s a balance that signifies good heart health and is a benchmark against which deviations, either high or low, are gauged.
- A typical reading falls between 90/60 mmHg and 120/80 mmHg.
- The higher number represents systolic pressure, capturing the force when the heart beats.
- The lower number denotes diastolic pressure, measured when the heart rests between beats.
- Blood pressure can fluctuate based on factors like stress, activity level, and time of day.
- Maintaining a reading within the normal range reduces the risk of heart diseases and strokes.
- Regular check-ups and monitoring are essential to ensure one stays within this healthy range.
What is an normal blood pressure by age?
Normal blood pressure levels can vary by age, and it’s important to consider these age-related differences. Here’s a general overview of what is considered normal blood pressure for different age groups:
Children and Adolescents (3-18 years)
Adults (18-64 years)
Older Adults (65+ years):
These values can serve as general guidelines, but individual variation exists. It’s crucial to consult a healthcare provider for personalized blood pressure assessments and recommendations.
What is an normal blood pressure by race/ethnicity?
Normal blood pressure values can vary among individuals of different race and ethnicity due to genetic and lifestyle factors. Here’s a general overview of normal blood pressure ranges for various racial and ethnic groups:
It’s important to note that these are general guidelines, and individual variations exist. Healthcare providers consider various factors when assessing blood pressure and tailor recommendations accordingly.
What is a normal blood pressure during sleep?
Normal blood pressure during sleep tends to follow a pattern of natural fluctuations. Here’s a general overview of what is considered normal blood pressure levels during sleep:
- Systolic Pressure: Normally decreases during sleep and may drop by 10-20 mmHg compared to daytime levels.
- Diastolic Pressure: Also decreases during sleep, typically by 10 mmHg or more compared to daytime readings.
- Blood pressure varies throughout the sleep cycle, with the lowest readings occurring during deep sleep (slow-wave sleep).
These values can vary from person to person, and individual factors can influence nighttime blood pressure. It’s crucial to keep in touch with your doctor for personalized guidance on sleep-related blood pressure patterns.
What is normal blood pressure during menopause?
Normal blood pressure during menopause can vary, but there are some general patterns to be aware of:
- Systolic Pressure: Typically remains relatively stable or may slightly increase during menopause.
- Diastolic Pressure: Tends to increase during menopause, which can be attributed to hormonal changes and aging.
- Individual Variation: Blood pressure changes during menopause can vary widely among women due to genetics, lifestyle, and overall health.Importance of Monitoring: Regular blood pressure monitoring is crucial during menopause to detect any significant deviations and address them promptly.
- Consult Healthcare Provider: Women experiencing menopause should consult their healthcare provider for personalized guidance on blood pressure management.
What are the symptoms of abnormal blood pressure?
Symptoms of abnormal blood pressure, whether it’s too high (hypertension) or too low (hypotension), might be indicating an underlying health problem. These symptoms include:
- Headaches, especially in the morning.
- Dizziness or lightheadedness.
- Blurred or double vision.
- Shortness of breath.
- Chest pain or palpitations.
- Blood in urine.
- Dizziness or fainting, especially upon standing.
- Blurred vision.
- Rapid heartbeat.
- Cold, clammy skin.
If you experience any of these symptoms, without wasting time, immediately consult a doctor and get yourself checked.
What are the risk factors of abnormal blood pressure?
Several risk factors increase the likelihood of experiencing abnormal blood pressure, whether it’s high (hypertension) or low (hypotension). These risk factors encompass various aspects of lifestyle, genetics, and underlying health conditions:
- Age: As individuals age, the risk of high blood pressure increases.
- Family History: A family history of hypertension can predispose one to the condition.
- Overweight: Extra body mass places added stress on the heart and blood vessels.
- Lack of Exercise: Leading a inactive way of life can be a factor in the development of both elevated and reduced blood pressure.
- Unhealthy Diet: High sodium intake and low potassium intake can elevate blood pressure.
- Excessive Alcohol: Heavy alcohol consumption can lead to hypertension.
- Tobacco Use: Smoking and tobacco use are associated with elevated blood pressure.
- Stress: Chronic stress can affect blood pressure regulation.
- Chronic Conditions: Conditions like diabetes, kidney disease, and sleep apnea can increase blood pressure risk.
- Medications: Certain medications may raise or lower blood pressure as a side effect.
- Gender: Men are at a higher risk for hypertension until women reach menopause.
What are the causes of abnormal blood pressure?
The causes of abnormal blood pressure, whether it’s high (hypertension) or low (hypotension), can be multifaceted and may stem from various factors, including:
- Genetics: Family history and genetic predisposition can influence blood pressure.
- Lifestyle Choices: Unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, excessive alcohol, and tobacco use contribute to both high and low blood pressure.
- Obesity: Excess weight can strain the cardiovascular system.
- Underlying Health Conditions: Chronic diseases like diabetes, kidney issues, and hormonal imbalances can impact blood pressure.
- Medications: Certain drugs, when taken, may affect blood pressure as a side effect.
- Stress: Chronic stress can lead to fluctuations in blood pressure.
- Age: Blood pressure tends to increase as you age.
- Dietary Factors: High sodium intake and low potassium intake can elevate blood pressure.
How to monitor blood pressure at home?
Checking blood pressure at home is a straightforward process with the right equipment and technique. Regular monitoring provides valuable insights into one’s cardiovascular health and helps in early detection of potential issues.
- Acquire a digital blood pressure monitor from a reputable brand.
- Sit comfortably in a quiet room, resting for about five minutes before taking a reading.
- Place the cuff on the upper arm, ensuring it’s neither too tight nor too loose.
- Keep the arm at heart level, resting it on a table or armrest.
- Turn on the monitor and follow the device’s instructions to start the measurement.
- Remain still and silent during the process.
- Record the reading, noting both the systolic (top number) and diastolic (bottom number) values.
- It’s advisable to take readings at the same time each day and maintain a log for reference during medical consultations.
Which is the best and accurate blood pressure monitor to use at home?
Finding the best and accurate blood pressure monitor for home use in today’s internet market flooded with technology is a challenging task.
While you may find cheap options online, the reproducibility of results is a big question mark. This could sometimes mean life or death, and that’s why you need a clinically valid product that is no less than smart!
The three best recommendations from the internet are:
- Oxiline Pressure X Pro: The Oxiline Pressure X Pro is an accurate at-home blood pressure monitor powered by a superior VIBRA TX sensor and boasts a user-friendly interface. It logs readings automatically, syncs with Apple and Android devices, and offers a lifetime warranty.
- CheckMe BP2: The CheckMe BP2 is a compact blood pressure monitor with EKG capabilities. It pairs with the ViHealth App, offering BP and EKG readings in 30 seconds. Features include an OLED screen, Bluetooth, and AI-ECG detection of irregular heart conditions. A reliable and efficient heart health tool.
- QardioArm: The QardioArm is an intuitive at-home blood pressure monitor compatible with iOS and Android. It is a sleek and lightweight product with superior energy efficiency. It offers clear readings, visualizes data on a color-coded app graph, and stores historical data.
What are the treatments for abnormal blood pressure?
The treatment choices for abnormal blood pressure, be it elevated (hypertension) or reduced (hypotension), differ based on the particular condition and its root reasons. Here are some common approaches to manage abnormal blood pressure:
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure):
- Lifestyle Modifications:
- A nutritious diet abundant in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products.
- Regular physical activity.
- Limiting alcohol intake.
- Reducing sodium (salt) consumption.
- ACE inhibitors.
- Calcium channel blockers.
- Stress Management:
- Relaxation techniques like meditation or yoga.
- Regular Monitoring:
- Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider.
Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure):
- Fluid and Salt Intake:
- Increase fluid and salt intake under medical guidance.
- Fludrocortisone or midodrine for severe cases.
- Compression Stockings:
- To improve blood flow in the legs.
- Lifestyle Changes:
- Smaller, more frequent meals.
- Avoiding sudden position changes.
- Identifying Underlying Causes:
- Treat the root cause, such as anemia or heart conditions.
How to keep blood pressure on a healthy level?
Keeping blood pressure at healthy level is essential for one’s overall health and wellness. Here are some practical steps to help keep your blood pressure in check:
- Nutritious Eating: Opt for a diet abundant in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources.
- Limit Sodium: Reduce salt intake to less than 2,300 mg per day (about a teaspoon).
- Regular Physical Activity: Strive for a minimum of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise every week.
- Manage Stress: Practice relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation, or yoga.
- Moderate Alcohol: If you drink, do so in moderation (up to one drink per day for women and two for men).
- Maintain a Healthy Weight: Achieve and maintain a healthy body weight.
- Regular Check-ups: Monitor your blood pressure and attend regular healthcare check-ups.
- Medications: If prescribed, take blood pressure medications as directed by your healthcare provider.
- Limit Caffeine: Avoid excessive caffeine consumption.
What are the complications of an abnormal blood pressure?
Complications of abnormal blood pressure, whether it’s high (hypertension) or low (hypotension), can encompass various health aspects. Some of these complications include:
Hypertension (High Blood Pressure):
- Cardiovascular Issues:
- Elevated chances of developing heart ailments.
- Aneurysms and vascular damage.
- Kidney Damage: Hypertension can impair kidney function over time.
- Vision Problems: May lead to vision loss or eye damage.
- Cognitive Impairment: Can contribute to cognitive decline and dementia.
Hypotension (Low Blood Pressure):
- Fainting and Falls: Increased risk of falls and injuries.
- Cognitive Decline: Impaired blood flow to the brain may impact cognitive abilities.
- Heart Issues: May lead to heart-related complications.
- Kidney Function: Can impair kidney function.
- Vision Problems: Blurred vision and other visual disturbances.
- Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR, Cushman WC, Green LA, Izzo JL Jr, Jones DW, Materson BJ, Oparil S, Wright JT Jr, Roccella EJ; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National High Blood Pressure Education Program Coordinating Committee. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA. 2003 May 21;289(19):2560-72. doi: 10.1001/jama.289.19.2560. Epub 2003 May 14. Erratum in: JAMA. 2003 Jul 9;290(2):197. PMID: 12748199.
- Antza, C. et al. Masked and white coat hypertension, the double trouble of large arteries: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension 22, 802 (2020).
- 6 simple tips to reduce your blood pressure – Harvard Health. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2023, from https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/6-simple-tips-to-reduce-your-blood-pressure
- Conversano, C., Orrù, G., Pozza, A., Miccoli, M., Ciacchini, R., Marchi, L., & Gemignani, A. (2021). Is Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Effective for People with Hypertension? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 30 Years of Evidence. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062882
- Heart-Health Screenings | American Heart Association. (n.d.). Retrieved September 17, 2023, from https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/consumer-healthcare/what-is-cardiovascular-disease/heart-health-screenings
- Nasri, H., Baradaran, A., Shirzad, H., & Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2014). New Concepts in Nutraceuticals as Alternative for Pharmaceuticals. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 5(12), 1487-1499. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4336979/
- Hypertension in pregnancy. Report of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Nov;122(5):1122-1131. doi: 10.1097/01.AOG.0000437382.03963.88. PMID: 24150027.
- Flynn JT, Kaelber DC, Baker-Smith CM, Blowey D, Carroll AE, Daniels SR, de Ferranti SD, Dionne JM, Falkner B, Flinn SK, Gidding SS, Goodwin C, Leu MG, Powers ME, Rea C, Samuels J, Simasek M, Thaker VV, Urbina EM; SUBCOMMITTEE ON SCREENING AND MANAGEMENT OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE IN CHILDREN. Clinical Practice Guideline for Screening and Management of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics. 2017 Sep;140(3):e20171904. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-1904. Epub 2017 Aug 21. Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2017 Nov 30;: Erratum in: Pediatrics. 2018 Sep;142(3): PMID: 28827377.