Robin Backlund, BHSc
A blood pressure reading of 158 over 91 (158/91) mmHg indicates that you are at a STAGE 1 HYPERTENSION, in line with the latest guidelines from the American Heart Association.
This reading suggests you should promptly seek medical advice as, over time, it can escalate into a significant health crisis.
This alert is relevant for everyone – children, adults, the elderly, and pregnant women – and, if neglected, can lead to complications like heart disease or kidney issues.
It’s essential to understand that blood pressure can vary based on factors such as age, gender, weight, and general health, with ‘ideal’ levels differing based on individual medical histories and concurrent health conditions.
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What does a 158 over 91 (158/91) blood pressure mean?
A blood pressure reading of 158/91 indicates that the person is in the initial stage of hypertension, a diagnosis that requires confirmation by a trained physician over time.
Here is a blood pressure chart according to the latest guidelines of American Heart Association (AHA).
mm Hg [upper #]
mm Hg [lower #]
Less than 80
Less than 50
Less than 90
Less than 60
Less than 120
Less than 80
Less than 80
Hypertension STAGE 1
Hypertension STAGE 2
140 or higher
90 or higher
Consult your doctor immediately
Higher than 180
Higher than 120
When blood pressure consistently falls within the range of 140/90 – 160/100 for more than 7 days, a doctor may diagnose it as stage one hypertension, also known as mild hypertension.
This classification implies a higher risk of cardiovascular disorders and other comorbidities if medical attention is not sought promptly.
According to a CDC report, around 45% of adult population in US has a blood pressure reading higher than 140/90, which is roughly around 37 million people. 1
The individual should consult a physician to determine the most suitable medication and make necessary lifestyle adjustments.
While 158/91 may pose a long-term risk, immediate hospitalization is generally unnecessary.
Here is the list of symptoms that may manifest 158/91 mm/Hg blood pressure.
- Nausea and dizziness
- Severe headache
- Excessive sweating
- Difficulty breathing
- Weight gain
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What should you do if you have 158/91 blood pressure?
Here is a set-by-step procedure to follow when you figure out you have a blood pressure of 158/91 mmHg.
1. Consult your doctor for accurate blood pressure reading
If your blood is 158 over 91 mmHg and you have checked the same in your home setup, it is highly recommended to get it checked at your doctor’s office.
A trained professional has to clinically assess your condition and confirm that your 158/91 is, in fact, clinically valid.
There are instances when your reading at home setup might give you a reading which is incorrectly reported. It could be because of an error in reading it, damage to your device, your physical or mental condition on that particular day, etc.
Therefore, a doctor has to assess it over the course of 7 – 30 days periodically before he/she can confirm the accurate stage of your blood pressure.
In a study from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, researchers found something interesting about blood pressure readings.
Sometimes, when people are at the doctor’s office, their blood pressure reads high, but it’s normal when they check it elsewhere. They call this white coat hypertension.
On the flip side, some folks show normal readings at the doctor’s but have high readings at home or other places. This is known as masked hypertension. 2
All these conditions are linked to physiology and psychology and, therefore, better to be validated by a doctor.
2. Adopt these lifestyle changes to regulate your blood pressure
A level of 158/91 indicates an impending cardiovascular mishap. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is foundational in managing blood pressure as it addresses the root causes and mitigates the risk factors associated with hypertension.
It fosters overall well-being, enhances the body’s regulatory mechanisms, and prevents the onset of complications.
A balanced approach to lifestyle not only aids in controlling blood pressure but also synergistically improves other aspects of health, reducing the reliance on medication and promoting longevity.
According to the American Heart Association and Mayo Clinic guidelines, the activities listed below can help control stage 1 hypertension and bring the levels back to normal. 3, 4
- Regular physical activity is important.
- Weight loss can be beneficial for reducing blood pressure.
- Moderation in alcohol consumption is advised.
- Aiming for less than 1500 milligrams of sodium per day can be effective, with some benefiting from less than 1000 milligrams per day.
- Increasing dietary potassium intake can help balance the effects of sodium.
- Avoiding tobacco products can improve heart health.
- Effective stress management is crucial.
- A diet low in salt and rich in fruits and vegetables is recommended.
3. Consider using medications for blood pressure management
Based on your doctor’s recommendation, you may have to go with one or more of the following drugs to treat your 158/91 blood pressure.
All of these are prescription drugs, and the dosage is designed based on your condition.
According to NHS guidelines, the following medications can be used when your blood pressure is 158 over 91 mmHg. However, make sure to consult your doctor before trying any of these. 5
- Water pills: these are the medications that help in the withdrawal of sodium salts from the bloodstream and help the body’s hydration to a better extent. Because of the removal of sodium, your blood vessels experience less pressure over them.
- Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers: these supplements help stop the contraction of blood vessels. Therefore, the blood vessels are relaxed, and the blood pressure over the vessels is reduced.
- Diltiazem: this is a type of Calcium Channel Blocker. This medication stops the intermixing of Calcium minerals in your blood. Because of this, the heart rate of the person is lessened, which will help regulate the blood pressure.
- Alpha-blockers: are the medications that stop the nutrients and chemicals in the body from narrowing the blood vessels.
4. Plan a diet specifically for 158/91 mmHg blood pressure
Don’t worry. Ever since the advent of human civilization, blood pressure has been a major threat. When humans started to treat it, natural remedies were the first life of defence.
Here is a list of foods from Harvard School of Medicine’s recommendations to help you manage your hypertension with minimal intervention of medications.6
- Limit sodium intake: High sodium intake is associated with heart attack and stroke risks. Excess sodium in blood will increase the blood volume by retaining water, which further aggravates the 158/91 blood pressure. Processed foods, pickles, bread, pizzas, junk foods, etc. shall be avoided.
- Eat potassium: An important mineral necessary for the functioning of the sodium-potassium pump, which helps in the rejection of excess sodium from the body. Bananas, leafy veggies, tuna, dairy, etc., are rich in potassium.
- Say no to caffeine: Caffeine in coffee, tea, and some aerated beverages is directly linked to the working of your heart. Even though there is no evidence that it can prolong high blood pressure, it gives an instant boost to your existing 158 over 91 mmHg blood pressure.
- Dark chocolate is good to go: Flavonoids in dark chocolate can help to bring down your elevated 158/91 blood pressure back to normal. Make sure you opt for a non-alkalized cocoa product with no added sugar.
- Sugar is a killer: The carbohydrate surge created by sugar is linked to an increased incidence of heart problems. Since your blood pressure is high, it is advised to avoid or atleast cut short the intake of sugar, especially artificial sweetening agents.
- Calcium-rich helps: Calcium is an important mineral that helps in the working of cardio muscles. A deficiency of calcium is often linked to increased blood pressure. Beans, tofu, leafy veggies, and dairy are some good sources of calcium.
5. Monitor for additional health conditions associated with blood pressure 158/91 mmHg
Some of the comorbidities associated with high blood pressure include coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, stroke, and cardiovascular disorders.
When you have 158/91, the above-mentioned comorbidities may follow; if correctly, medical attention is not sought.
Therefore, it is highly recommended to treat your hypertension, get it back to a normal level of 120/80 and maintain it.
A study from the University of Glasgow has identified diabetes as the number one aggravator of stage 1 hypertension, which indeed can reduce the efficacy of other treatments.7
Other diseases like obesity, sleep apnea, stress or depression, etc., can cause your blood pressure to increase.
6. Try natural supplements to support healthy blood pressure level
Sometimes managing blood pressure is all about supplementing your body with the right diet. Food is undoubtedly the best primary source to supplement your body.
However, in the current scenarios, we all know how much adultered our foodstuff is, and most of us are pushed towards processed foods to feed ourselves in this fast-paced world.
All these food are high in sugar and sodium and doesn’t contain any vital nutrients that are important for a healthy heart.
This is where some of the nutraceutical-based blood pressure supplements come in handy. These products combine all critical nutrients your heart craves, thereby assisting the better function of your cardiovascular system.
Generally, these supplements are a concoction of herbs, plant-based products, dairy products, and some animal products. They are 100% organic and natural and don’t contain any harmful chemicals.
In fact, a study published in Free Radical Biology and Medicine suggests that Vitamins C, E, and D from herbaceous sources are more likely to reduce blood pressure in stage 1 hypertension patients. 8
If you are hearing about these segments of products for the first time, to start with, you may blindly go for Blood Pressure Support from Vita Balance Inc, Blood Pressure Optimizer from HFL, or Corsanum, marketed by PLT Group.
Blood Pressure Support
Blood Pressure Optimizer
Blood Pressure Support combines hawthorn berry, olive leaf, hibiscus, and some vitamins like C, B6, B12, niacin, and folate alongside a bunch of other medicinal herbs to support the healthy working of the heart.
Blood Pressure Optimizer has MegaNatural®-BP grape seed extract and Celery3nB™ celery seed extract alongside common vitamins and minerals, which can help increase your cardiovascular elasticity.
Corsanum is a refined combination of olive, iron, and grapevine alongside regular products like coriander, hawthorn, and oregano, all of which are foods known to maintain cardiovascular health.
Only one thing to keep in mind is that, choose the best blood pressure-lowering supplement, because when it comes to heart, there is no taking of risk!
All the above practices are supposed to be followed in conjunction with the clinical treatment regimen your doctor chooses for you.
With 158 over 91 mmHg pressure, it is highly recommended to focus on therapeutic drugs which treat supplements and exercise as a heart health enhancer.
What should you do when your blood pressure is 158/91 during pregnancy?
Pregnancy introduces a unique set of variables that make managing a 158 over 91 blood pressure a bit more complicated. If you are pregnant and find yourself with a blood pressure of 158/91 mmHg, immediate medical consultation is necessary.
A team of healthcare professionals including an obstetrician, cardiologist, and possibly a maternal-fetal medicine specialist will likely be involved in your care.
According to a study published in NCBI, this could indicate severe preeclampsia, a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and potential damage to vital organs like the liver and kidneys, and lead to 500,000 fetal deaths worldwide. 9
Medical practitioners may prescribe blood pressure medications that are safe for both mother and child, or modify current medications to ensure safety. Lifestyle modifications are equally crucial.
Unlike non-pregnant individuals, you may need more frequent prenatal check-ups to monitor the baby’s growth and your own well-being.
Is blood pressure 158/91 high for a man?
In men, a blood pressure of 158 over 91 mmHg is considered stage 1 hypertension and calls for immediate lifestyle changes and potential medication. Men are generally at a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases, so it’s crucial to act immediately.
Exercise, especially aerobic activities, can significantly help to reduce blood pressure. Also, reducing sodium intake and eliminating smoking and excessive alcohol consumption can be particularly effective.
Medications are usually prescribed depending on other risk factors like age, family history, and existing comorbidities.
Is blood pressure 158/91 high for a woman?
For women, 158/91 mmHg also falls under stage 1 hypertension. Women often experience fluctuating blood pressure levels due to hormonal changes, especially during menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. This makes it all the more critical to consult a healthcare provider for a tailored treatment plan.
Similar to men, lifestyle changes are imperative. For some women, birth control pills can exacerbate blood pressure, so a healthcare provider may suggest alternative methods of contraception.
Is blood pressure 158/91 high for an elderly?
In the elderly, a blood pressure reading of 158 over 91 mmHg does fall into the range of stage 1 hypertension.
However, it’s essential to note that blood pressure guidelines can sometimes be less stringent for older adults due to various factors like multiple comorbidities and the risks associated with medication side effects.
It is generally recommended that older adults aim for a blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg, but the ideal target can vary from individual to individual.
It’s crucial to consult a healthcare provider for a tailored treatment plan that may include medications and lifestyle changes like diet adjustments and moderate exercise.
Is blood pressure 158/91 high for children?
A blood pressure reading of 158/91 mmHg is usually considered high for children and adolescents.
Children are not typically expected to have blood pressure levels in the hypertensive range, and a reading this high calls for immediate medical attention.
According to a team of researchers from The Hospital for Sick Children, Canada, several factors during the perinatal period are linked to blood pressure in children, such as low birth weight, being born prematurely, and maternal aspects like preeclampsia, blood pressure, age, and BMI.10
The diagnostic procedures may include multiple readings over time and possibly additional tests to rule out underlying conditions.
Lifestyle changes such as better dietary choices, increased physical activity, and even medication could be considered depending on the case.
Is blood pressure 158/91 high for an adult?
For adults, a blood pressure of 158 over 91 mmHg is indeed considered to be stage 1 hypertension.
It serves as a clear indicator that lifestyle modifications are needed, and medical treatment may be necessary depending on other risk factors like existing cardiovascular diseases or diabetes.
Immediate consultation with a healthcare provider is advised for a comprehensive diagnosis and treatment plan, which may include medication and lifestyle changes like diet and exercise.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
What is the blood pressure?
Blood pressure is a measure of the force exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries as it is pumped by the heart.
When the heart beats, usually 60 to 100 times a minute, it sends blood through arteries that distribute oxygen and nutrients to the entire body.
These arteries transport blood from the heart to various body parts, and the pressure within them naturally fluctuates throughout the day.
What do the numbers on blood pressure readings chart mean?
The numbers on the blood pressure chart are a metric that helps you determine the health of your heart.
A quick, concise and accurate judgement about your heart can be drawn based on the range, difference, and intensity of these numbers.
They are often divided into two numbers, called systolic (force of blood in your arteries when your heart beats) and diastolic (force exerted when the heart is resting between betas) measurements.
Based on these pair of numbers, the blood pressure reading is classified into seven stages.
- Very Low Blood Pressure (Severe Hypotension): Below 80/50
- Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension): 80/50 – 90/60
- Normal Blood Pressure: 91/61 – 119/79
- Pre-Hypertension (Elevated Blood Pressure): 120/80 – 139/89
- High Blood Pressure (Stage 1 Hypertension): 140/90 – 159/99
- High Blood Pressure (Stage 2 Hypertension): 160/100 – 180/120
- Hypertensive Crisis: Above 180/120
What is a normal blood pressure?
Normal blood pressure, as recommended by the American Heart Association and cited by the National Institutes of Health, falls between 90 mmHg systolic, 60 mmHg diastolic and 120 mmHg systolic, 80 mmHg diastolic.
Perfect blood pressure is a measure that indicates the optimal force of blood against the walls of our arteries, ensuring efficient circulation without undue stress on the cardiovascular system.
It’s a balance that signifies good heart health and is a benchmark against which deviations, either high or low, are gauged.
What is a stage 1 hypertension?
Stage 1 hypertension is an initial level of high blood pressure marked by a consistent increase in the force of blood pressing against the walls of the arteries.
When it comes to specific readings, this stage is defined by a systolic pressure (the top number) between 140 and 159 mm Hg and a diastolic pressure (the bottom number) between 90 and 99 mm Hg.
While it’s an early phase of hypertension, it typically necessitates medical intervention coupled with changes in lifestyle.
It’s crucial for individuals with stage 1 hypertension to have regular check-ins with their healthcare provider to monitor their condition and modify treatments as needed. Interestingly, the occurrence of this stage varies globally.
Developed countries tend to see higher instances, likely because of factors like less active lifestyles, poor dietary choices, and older age groups in the population.
How does stage 1 hypertension affect blood pressure?
Stage 1 hypertension has several effects on blood pressure that can impact overall health and well-being.
Here are key points outlining these effects.
- Elevated Blood Pressure: Stage 1 hypertension is characterized by systolic blood pressure readings ranging from 140 to 159 mm Hg and diastolic readings of 90 to 99 mm Hg.
- Increased Cardiovascular Risk: It significantly raises the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular issues.
- Strain on Arteries: The heart pumps blood against increased resistance, leading to strain on arteries and potential damage.
- Target Organs: Hypertension can damage organs like the heart, kidneys, and brain over time.
- Management: Lifestyle changes and, in some cases, medications are often recommended to control blood pressure levels.
What are the symptoms of a stage 1 hypertension?
Symptoms of stage 1 hypertension may not always be obvious, as it is often asymptomatic. However, some individuals may experience subtle signs that warrant attention.
Here are key symptoms associated with stage 1 hypertension.
- Headaches: Mild to moderate headaches, especially in the morning.
- Fatigue: A general feeling of tiredness or low energy levels.
- Vision Changes: Blurred vision or difficulty focusing.
- Chest Pain: Occasionally, chest discomfort.
- Dizziness: Feeling lightheaded or dizzy.
- Shortness of Breath: Especially during physical exertion.
- Nosebleeds: Occasional nosebleeds, although these are less common.
It’s crucial to note that many people with stage 1 hypertension do not experience any noticeable symptoms, highlighting the importance of regular blood pressure monitoring.
What are the risk factors of stage 1 hypertension?
Several risk factors contribute to the development of stage 1 hypertension, a condition characterized by elevated blood pressure levels.
These factors increase the likelihood of developing this health issue.
- Age: Advancing age, especially over 65, raises the risk.
- Family History: A family history of hypertension can predispose individuals.
- Obesity: Excess body weight, particularly if accompanied by abdominal obesity.
- Lifestyle: Unhealthy habits like a high-sodium diet, excessive alcohol consumption, and lack of physical activity.
- Stress: Chronic stress can lead to hypertension.
- Smoking: Tobacco use increases the risk.
- Medical Conditions: Conditions like diabetes and kidney disease can contribute.
- Certain Medications: Some medications, if not managed carefully, can elevate blood pressure.
- Race: African Americans are at higher risk.
Understanding these risk factors can help in prevention and early management of stage 1 hypertension.
What are the causes of stage 1 hypertension?
Stage 1 hypertension is primarily caused by a combination of factors that affect blood pressure regulation within the body.
While risk factors contribute to its development, causes are related to underlying physiological processes.
Here are the key causes of stage 1 hypertension.
- Arterial Stiffness: Reduced elasticity of arteries, making it harder for them to expand and contract properly.
- Hormonal Imbalances: Changes in hormones like aldosterone and angiotensin can impact blood pressure regulation.
- Kidney Dysfunction: Problems with the kidneys’ ability to manage sodium and fluid balance.
- Nervous System Issues: Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system can affect blood vessel tone.
- Genetics: Genetic predisposition can influence blood pressure regulation mechanisms.
These causes can lead to elevated blood pressure levels, contributing to the development of stage 1 hypertension.
How is a stage 1 hypertension diagnosed?
Diagnosing stage 1 hypertension involves a combination of methods to accurately assess an individual’s blood pressure and rule out secondary causes.
Here’s how stage 1 hypertension is diagnosed.
- Blood Pressure Measurement: Regular monitoring of blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer or digital blood pressure monitor.
- Multiple Readings: Multiple readings taken on different occasions to confirm the presence of elevated blood pressure.
- Medical History: Evaluation of the patient’s medical history, including risk factors and symptoms.
- Physical Examination: A thorough physical examination to check for signs of organ damage.
- Laboratory Tests: Blood and urine tests to assess kidney function and rule out secondary causes.
- Ambulatory Monitoring: In some cases, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over 24 hours may be used for more accurate diagnosis.
How to take blood pressure at home?
Taking blood pressure at home is a straightforward process with the right equipment and technique.
Regular monitoring provides valuable insights into one’s cardiovascular health and helps in early detection of potential issues.
- Acquire a digital blood pressure monitor from a reputable brand.
- Sit comfortably in a quiet room, resting for about five minutes before taking a reading.
- Place the cuff on the upper arm, ensuring it’s neither too tight nor too loose.
- Keep the arm at heart level, resting it on a table or armrest.
- Turn on the monitor and follow the device’s instructions to start the measurement.
- Remain still and silent during the process.
- Record the reading, noting both the systolic (top number) and diastolic (bottom number) values.
- It’s advisable to take readings at the same time each day and maintain a log for reference during medical consultations.
Which is the best and accurate blood pressure monitor to use at home?
Finding the best and accurate blood pressure monitors to use at home from internet flooded with technological options, presents a formidable challenge.
While you may encounter affordable choices online, there remains a significant question mark surrounding the reliability of their results.
This uncertainty can sometimes have life-or-death implications, underscoring the importance of opting for a clinically validated product that is nothing short of intelligent.
Here are three top recommendations from the online landscape.
The Oxiline Pressure X Pro is an accurate at-home blood pressure monitor powered by a superior VIBRA TX sensor and boasts a user-friendly interface. It logs readings automatically, syncs with Apple and Android devices, and offers a lifetime warranty.
The CheckMe BP2 is a compact blood pressure monitor with EKG capabilities. It pairs with the ViHealth App, offering BP and EKG readings in 30 seconds. Features include an OLED screen, Bluetooth, and AI-ECG detection of irregular heart conditions. A reliable and efficient heart health tool.
The QardioArm is an intuitive at-home blood pressure monitor compatible with iOS and Android. It is a sleek and lightweight product with superior energy efficiency. It offers clear readings, visualizes data on a color-coded app graph, and stores historical data.
What are the treatments for stage 1 hypertension?
Treating stage 1 hypertension typically involves a combination of lifestyle modifications and, in some cases, medications prescribed by a healthcare provider.
Here’s an overview of how doctors may treat stage 1 hypertension.
- Lifestyle Changes: Doctors often recommend lifestyle modifications, including:
- Dietary Changes: Encouraging a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low in sodium.
- Regular Exercise: Promoting regular physical activity.
- Stress Management: Techniques to reduce stress.
- Limiting Alcohol: Advising moderation in alcohol consumption.
- Smoking Cessation: Encouraging quitting smoking.
- Medications: In certain situations, doctors may prescribe medications like:
- Thiazide Diuretics: These help the body eliminate excess sodium and reduce blood volume.
- ACE Inhibitors: These relax blood vessels.
- Calcium Channel Blockers: They reduce heart rate and relax blood vessels.
- Beta-Blockers: Lower heart rate and blood pressure.
- Routine Monitoring: Ongoing monitoring of blood pressure and adjustment of treatment as needed.
- How to treat stage 1 hypertension at home?
When managing stage 1 hypertension at home, there are several additional actions you can take to complement lifestyle changes without repeating the commonly mentioned ones.
- Stay Hydrated: Drink plenty of water to maintain proper blood volume.
- Mindful Eating: Practice mindful eating, paying attention to portion sizes and meal timings.
- Herbal Supplements: Consider herbal supplements like garlic, hibiscus tea, or omega-3 fatty acids, but consult your doctor first.
- Home Blood Pressure Monitoring: Keep a log of your blood pressure readings to share with your healthcare provider.
- Limit Processed Foods: Minimize processed and packaged foods high in hidden sodium.
- Caffeine Management: Be mindful of caffeine intake from sources like coffee, tea, and energy drinks.
These additional steps can further support your efforts in managing stage 1 hypertension effectively at home.
What are the complications of stage 1 hypertension?
Complications of stage 1 hypertension, if left uncontrolled, can lead to various issues affecting different organs and systems within the body. Here are some potential complications associated with stage 1 hypertension:
- Heart Disease: Increased risk of heart attack, angina, and heart failure.
- Stroke: Higher likelihood of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes.
- Kidney Damage: Hypertension can impair kidney function over time.
- Vision Problems: Damage to blood vessels in the eyes can lead to vision issues.
- Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): Reduced blood flow to the limbs, potentially causing pain and tissue damage.
- Aneurysms: Weak blood vessel walls can lead to the formation of aneurysms, which may rupture.
- Cognitive Decline: Hypertension is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia.
Effective management and treatment can help reduce these risks and complications associated with stage 1 hypertension.
How to prevent a stage 1 hypertension?
In order to prevent stage 1 hypertension you have to go for a holistic healthcare which avert your pre-hypertension from becoming stage 1 .
Fortunately, stage 1 hypertension can often be prevented through simple yet effective lifestyle changes. Here are six key strategies to keep your blood pressure in check.
- Homemade Meals: Control ingredients, limit salt, and additives.
- Choose Heart-Healthy Oils: Omega-3 and Omega-6 from fish, nuts.
- Get Vitamin D and Calcium: Fortified dairy, greens, sunlight.
- Use Stairs: Boost daily activity, enhance heart health.
- Daily Exercise: Key for blood pressure management.
- Avoid Sitting: Aim for 3000-5000 steps daily.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hypertension Cascade: Hypertension Prevalence, Treatment and Control Estimates Among U.S. Adults Aged 18 Years and Older Applying the Criteria from the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association’s 2017 Hypertension Guideline—NHANES 2017–2020. Atlanta, GA: May 12, 2023. Accessed July 6, 2023.
- Antza, C. et al. Masked and white coat hypertension, the double trouble of large arteries: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension 22, 802 (2020).
- Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure | American Heart Association. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2023, from https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/high-blood-pressure/changes-you-can-make-to-manage-high-blood-pressure
- 10 ways to control high blood pressure without medication – Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2023, from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/high-blood-pressure/art-20046974
- High blood pressure (hypertension) – Treatment – NHS. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2023, from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/high-blood-pressure-hypertension/treatment/
- Beating High Blood Pressure with Food – Harvard Health Publishing – Harvard Health. (n.d.). Retrieved September 26, 2023, from https://www.health.harvard.edu/newsletter_article/beating-high-blood-pressure-with-food
- Petrie, J. R., Guzik, T. J., & Touyz, R. M. (2018). Diabetes, Hypertension, and Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical Insights and Vascular Mechanisms. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 34(5), 575-584. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjca.2017.12.005
- Traber, M. G., & Stevens, J. F. (2011). Vitamins C and E: Beneficial effects from a mechanistic perspective. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 51(5), 1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.05.017
- Magee, L. A., Nicolaides, K. H., & von Dadelszen, P. (2023). Preeclampsia. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, 77(11), 641–643. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ogx.0000899472.90847.03
- Robinson, C. H., & Chanchlani, R. (2022). High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: Current Perspectives and Strategies to Improve Future Kidney and Cardiovascular Health. Kidney International Reports, 7(5), 954-970. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ekir.2022.02.018