Robin Backlund, BHSc
A blood pressure of 88 over 54 (88/54) mmHg indicates that you are having a HYPOTENSION [LOW BLOOD PRESSURE], following the latest guidelines from the American Heart Association.
This level might signal an immediate health concern if it drops excessively low.
It’s vital for all – children, adults, the elderly, and pregnant individuals – to monitor such readings and seek medical consultation when necessary.
Untreated hypotension can lead to dizziness, fainting, or more severe complications.
Remember, blood pressure measurements can vary based on factors such as age, gender, weight, and overall health, and ‘ideal’ readings may differ depending on one’s medical background and existing health conditions.
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What does a 88 over 54 (88/54) blood pressure mean?
The blood pressure value of 88/54 indicates that the individual in question is experiencing low blood pressure or hypotension.
This medical condition occurs when the blood pressure readings for a person are lower than [90/60]. A study published in Aging Mental Health suggests that adults with chronic hypotension might experience decrease coongnitive performance overtime. 1
The ideal blood pressure range for an individual falls between [90/60] and [120/80]. If, for any reason, blood pressure drops below these specified readings, the person is considered to have hypotension.
Here is a blood pressure chart according to the latest guidelines of American Heart Association (AHA).
mm Hg [upper #]
mm Hg [lower #]
Less than 80
Less than 50
Less than 90
Less than 60
Less than 120
Less than 80
Less than 80
Hypertension STAGE 1
Hypertension STAGE 2
140 or higher
90 or higher
Consult your doctor immediately
Higher than 180
Higher than 120
Hypotension, as a medical condition, means that the pressure exerted by the blood flowing through the blood vessels is lower than the expected value.
This also applies to the heart’s ability to pump blood to all parts of the body. Low blood pressure indicates that the heart is unable to adequately supply blood to all the body’s necessary areas.
Consequently, more complex medical problems can arise due to low blood pressure.
The effects or symptoms of these problems may not be readily apparent in an individual’s overall health, but they certainly impact the individual in multiple ways.
Some of the symptoms you may feel when you 88/54 mmHg are:
- Fast and shallow breathing
- Loss of skin color and cold skin
- Weak pulse
- Blurred vision
- Lack of concentration or peripheral sense
- Nausea, dizziness, and fainting
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What should you do if you have 88/54 mmHg blood pressure?
Here is a set-by-step procedure to follow when you figure out you have a blood pressure of 88 over 54 mmHg.
1. Consult your doctor for accurate blood pressure reading
If your blood is 88/54 and you have checked the same in your home setup, it is highly recommended to get it checked at your doctor’s office.
A trained professional has to clinically assess your condition and confirm that your 88/54 is, in fact, clinically valid.
There are instances when your reading at home setup might give you a reading which is incorrectly reported. It could be because of an error in reading it, damage to your device, your physical or mental condition on that particular day, etc.
Therefore, a doctor has to assess it over the course of 7 – 30 days periodically before he/she can confirm the accurate stage of your blood pressure.
In a study from the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, researchers found something interesting about blood pressure readings.
Sometimes, when people are at the doctor’s office, their blood pressure reads high, but it’s normal when they check it elsewhere. They call this white coat hypertension.
On the flip side, some folks show normal readings at the doctor’s but have high readings at home or other places. This is known as masked hypertension. 2
All these conditions are linked to physiology and psychology and, therefore, better to be validated by a doctor.
2. Adopt these lifestyle changes to regulate your blood pressure
Even the small changes you make in your life can have a really impressive effect on your overall health. And the same can be said regarding the problem of low blood pressure.
If you choose to make reasonable changes in your lifestyle, you can improve your blood pressure to a significant level.
According to a review from P&T Journal, here are some of the changes that you can bring into your lifestyle to improve your health and your blood pressure level 3:
- Increase the consumption of sodium salts.
- Increase the consumption of water, and keep yourself hydrated at all times.
- Eat healthy meals and exercise daily.
- Maintain a healthy body weight.
- Ensure a good emotional atmosphere around you (no stress and anxiety).
- Quit smoking and limit the consumption of alcohol.
3. Consider using medications for blood pressure management
You do not need to hesitate to consult with a physiotherapist about the problems that you are having. Through a relationship of mutual trust, you will be able to get a prescription that will be best suited for your body and overall health.
Accordnig to a clinical review from U. S Pharmacist, following are the prescribed medicines that are greatly helpful for people suffering from low blood pressure.4
- Corticosteroids: These are the types of medicines that control the amount of sodium present in our blood. By regulating that particular concentration of sodium in blood they raise the blood pressure of the individual.
- Alpha-adrenergic Agonists: These are the types of medicines that promote the contraction of blood vessels. As a result of this contraction, the pressure of blood over the vessels increases, and the body supports an ideal blood pressure.
- Angiotensin II: This type of medicine increases the extent of retention of sodium in the kidneys, and that contributes to the rise of blood pressure in the body of a person.
- Decongestants: These medicines help reduce the size of the swollen blood vessels and result in the contraction of the said blood vessels. This, as a result, leads to an increase in blood pressure.
- Immunosuppressants: These medicines promote the solubility of the sodium ions in your blood, as a result increasing its concentration. This contributes to rising in the BP of the individual.
4. Plan a diet specifically for 88/54 blood pressure
There are significant changes that you can see in your health if you were to eat healthily every day. And particularly in the case of hypotension, you should know what to eat and what not to.
- Caffeine: this is not something that can outright be helpful to your health, but caffeine products are known to increase the blood pressure of an individual. Therefore, support the limited intake of caffeine.
- Sodium salts: these salts promote the regulation of fluids in the body. So, it will be good if you were to increase the intake of salts.
- Drink lots of water: keep yourself hydrated at all times. This will lead to a decrease in the removal of salts from your body and will increase your blood pressure.
- Supplements: use natural supplements to make up for the number of essential nutrients that you are lacking. This will help improve the overall health of your body as well as your blood pressure.
- Say no to junk food: you should avoid the consumption of foods that are rich in carbs. Take small meals multiple times a day for the best of benefits.
5. Monitor for additional health conditions associated with blood pressure 88/54
Some of the comorbidities associated with low blood pressure include heart attack, cardiac arrest, heart valve disorder, bradycardia, and hormonal imbalance.
When you have 88 over 54 mmHg, the above-mentioned comorbidities may follow; if correctly, medical attention is not sought.
Therefore, it is highly recommended to treat your hypotension, get it back to a normal level of 120/80 and maintain it.
Even stress is linked to hypotension in some patients. Since the human body reacts differently to different situations, not only depression and anxiety lead to hypertension, but hypotension, too.
A Norwegian University of Science and Technology study found that low blood pressure was linked to feeling very tired, weak, dizzy, and having headaches. It was also connected to problems with sleep, feeling anxious, and being depressed.5
This is why it is important to get medical attention rather than treating yourself so that the root cause will be rectified and corrected.
6. Try natural supplements to support healthy blood pressure level
Sometimes, managing blood pressure is all about supplementing your body with the right diet. Food is undoubtedly the best primary source to supplement your body.
However, in the current scenario, we all know how much adultered our foodstuff is, and most of us are pushed towards processed foods to feed ourselves in this fast-paced world.
All these food are high in sugar and sodium and doesn’t contain any vital nutrients that are important for a healthy heart.
This is where some of the nutraceutical-based blood pressure supplements come in handy. These products combine all critical nutrients your heart craves, thereby assisting the better function of your cardiovascular system.
A team of researchers from Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences in Iran compiled a list of medicinal botanicals with anti-hypotensive capabilities. Today, most nutraceutical blood pressure supplements are made using these botanicals as their major ingredients. 6
Generally, these supplements are a concoction of herbs, plant-based products, dairy products, and some animal products. They are 100% organic and natural and don’t contain any harmful chemicals.
If you are hearing about these segments of products for the first time, to start with, you may blindly go for Blood Pressure Support from Vita Balance Inc, Blood Pressure Optimizer from HFL, or Corsanum, marketed by PLT Group.
Blood Pressure Support
Blood Pressure Optimizer
Blood Pressure Support combines hawthorn berry, olive leaf, hibiscus, and some vitamins like C, B6, B12, niacin, and folate alongside a bunch of other medicinal herbs to support the healthy working of the heart.
Blood Pressure Optimizer has MegaNatural®-BP grape seed extract and Celery3nB™ celery seed extract alongside common vitamins and minerals, which can help increase your cardiovascular elasticity.
Corsanum is a refined combination of olive, iron, and grapevine alongside regular products like coriander, hawthorn, and oregano, all of which are foods known to maintain cardiovascular health.
The only one thing to keep in mind is that choose the best supplement that promote healthy blood pressure, because when it comes to the heart, there is no taking of risk!
Low Blood Pressure or hypotension is not a problem to be made light of. If done so, it will only lead to more complications shortly. Rather than disregarding this problem, consulting with a professional physiotherapist will do you no harm.
Together, you can come up with the best solutions for you, especially when your blood pressure reading is 88/54 mmHg.
What should you do when your blood pressure is 88/54 mmHg during pregnancy?
If you’re pregnant and your blood pressure is at 88/54, it’s considerably low.
A scientific clinical review from Creighton University School of Medicine has found that maternal hypotension is associated with perinatal death after analyzing 41,089 singleton pregnancies. 7
Low blood pressure, although not as commonly addressed as high blood pressure, can still pose risks during pregnancy, such as fainting spells, increased fall risk, and, in severe cases, decreased blood supply to the placenta.
It’s essential to consult your healthcare provider to evaluate the situation thoroughly and recommend appropriate measures, which may include dietary adjustments, fluid intake, or even medication.
Is blood pressure 88/54 mmHg too low for a men?
For men, a blood pressure of 88 over 54 mmHg is generally considered low.
While low blood pressure is not always as alarming as high blood pressure, it can lead to symptoms like dizziness, fatigue, and fainting. This could be due to a variety of factors, including dehydration, certain medications, or underlying health conditions.
It’s advisable to consult a healthcare provider for a thorough evaluation and personalized treatment plan.
Is blood pressure 88/54 mmHg too low for a women?
For women, a reading of 88/54 is on the low side.
Women may particularly experience symptoms such as dizziness or fainting, nausea, and a lack of concentration with these levels. Just like men, women should consult a healthcare provider to pinpoint the cause.
Low blood pressure in women can sometimes be related to hormonal changes, pregnancy, or certain medications.
Is blood pressure 88/54 mmHg too low for an elderly?
In the elderly, a blood pressure of 88 over 54 mmHg can be concerning.
The elderly are generally more susceptible to the adverse effects of low blood pressure, including fainting and falls, which could lead to severe injuries.
Immediate medical consultation is advised to identify any underlying conditions that could be causing the low blood pressure and to initiate appropriate treatment.
Is blood pressure 88/54 mmHg too low for a children?
For children, a blood pressure of 88/54 could be low depending on their age, height, and overall health status.
According to a study published in BMC Pediatrics, the pediatric hypotension limit is identified as 90/50 mmHg, below which posses a significant risk in children. 8
While children generally have lower blood pressure compared to adults, a consistent reading of 88/54 may warrant further investigation to rule out any underlying conditions or issues.
Consultation with a pediatrician is strongly recommended for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.
Is blood pressure 88/54 mmHg too low for an adult?
For an adult, a blood pressure reading of 88 over 54 mmHg is generally considered low.
Although low blood pressure is less frequently discussed than high blood pressure, it can still cause various symptoms including dizziness, fainting, and fatigue, and may indicate underlying problems.
It is highly recommended to consult a healthcare provider for a comprehensive evaluation and to determine an appropriate treatment strategy.
FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
What is the blood pressure?
Blood pressure is a measure of the force exerted by blood against the walls of the arteries as it is pumped by the heart.
When the heart beats, usually 60 to 100 times a minute, it sends blood through arteries that distribute oxygen and nutrients to the entire body.
These arteries transport blood from the heart to various body parts, and the pressure within them naturally fluctuates throughout the day.
What do the numbers on blood pressure readings chart mean?
The numbers on the blood pressure chart are a metric that helps you determine the health of your heart.
A quick, concise and accurate judgement about your heart can be drawn based on the range, difference, and intensity of these numbers.
They are often divided into two numbers, called systolic (force of blood in your arteries when your heart beats) and diastolic (force exerted when the heart is resting between betas) measurements.
Based on these pair of numbers, the blood pressure reading is classified into seven stages.
- Very Low Blood Pressure (Severe Hypotension): Below 80/50
- Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension): 80/50 – 90/60
- Normal Blood Pressure: 91/61 – 119/79
- Pre-Hypertension (Elevated Blood Pressure): 120/80 – 139/89
- High Blood Pressure (Stage 1 Hypertension): 140/90 – 159/99
- High Blood Pressure (Stage 2 Hypertension): 160/100 – 180/120
- Hypertensive Crisis: Above 180/120
What is a normal blood pressure?
Normal blood pressure, as recommended by the American Heart Association and cited by the National Institutes of Health, falls between 90 mmHg systolic, 60 mmHg diastolic and 120 mmHg systolic, 80 mmHg diastolic.
Perfect blood pressure is a measure that indicates the optimal force of blood against the walls of our arteries, ensuring efficient circulation without undue stress on the cardiovascular system.
It’s a balance that signifies good heart health and is a benchmark against which deviations, either high or low, are gauged.
What is a low blood pressure (hypotension)?
Low blood pressure, commonly known as hypotension, is typically defined as a blood pressure reading below 90 mm Hg for the top number (systolic) or 60 mm Hg for the bottom number (diastolic).
While what’s deemed low for one individual might be normal for another, the effects can vary.
Some people might not feel any different, while others may experience dizziness or even faint. In certain situations, having low blood pressure can be extremely dangerous.
What do systolic and diastolic numbers mean in hypotension?
In hypotension, the systolic and diastolic numbers in a blood pressure reading take on specific meanings related to the condition.
These values provide essential insights into cardiovascular health.
Systolic Number (the higher of the two)
- Reflects the pressure in your arteries during each heartbeat.
- In hypotension, a low systolic reading indicates reduced force exerted by the heart when pumping blood.
- This can lead to inadequate blood flow to vital organs, causing symptoms like dizziness and fainting.
Diastolic Number (the lower of the two)
- Represents the arterial pressure when the heart rests between beats.
- In hypotension, a low diastolic reading may indicate that the heart is not effectively refilling or that there’s insufficient blood volume.
- This can result in inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues and may contribute to symptoms such as fatigue and weakness.
How does low blood pressure (hypotension) affect blood pressure?
Low blood pressure, has significant effects on the body’s blood pressure regulation system.
Here’s an overview of how hypotension impacts blood pressure.
- Reduced Blood Flow: Hypotension results in insufficient force to push blood through arteries effectively.
- Oxygen Delivery: Lower blood pressure can lead to inadequate oxygen and nutrient delivery to body tissues and organs.
- Dizziness and Fainting: Individuals with hypotension often experience lightheadedness, dizziness, and may faint due to poor brain perfusion.
- Fatigue: Low blood pressure can cause fatigue and weakness, affecting daily activities.
- Compensatory Mechanisms: The body may attempt to raise blood pressure through increased heart rate and narrowed blood vessels.
- Underlying Causes: Hypotension can be a symptom of various medical conditions or medications and requires a thorough evaluation for proper management.
What are the types of low blood pressure (hypotension)?
Hypotension can manifest in various forms, each with distinct causes and characteristics.
Here are different types of hypotension.
- Orthostatic Hypotension: Occurs when there’s a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing up.
- Neurally Mediated Hypotension (NMH): A condition where blood pressure drops abnormally during certain triggers like stress or emotional situations.
- Postprandial Hypotension: Blood pressure drops after eating, particularly in older adults.
- Hypotension Due to Medications: Some drugs, like antihypertensives, may lead to low blood pressure as a side effect.
- Severe Hypotension: An acute drop in blood pressure can result from shock or severe medical conditions.
- Chronic Hypotension: Persistent low blood pressure can be a sign of underlying health issues and requires thorough evaluation and treatment.
What are the symptoms of a low blood pressure (hypotension)?
The symptoms of hypotension are varied and can range in severity. These symptoms typically arise due to inadequate blood flow and oxygen delivery to the body’s organs and tissues.
Common signs of hypotension are listed below.
- Dizziness or Light headedness: Feeling unsteady or faint when standing up or suddenly changing positions.
- Blurred Vision: Impaired visual clarity or tunnel vision.
- Nausea: A sensation of queasiness or an urge to vomit.
- Fatigue: Persistent tiredness and weakness.
- Confusion: Difficulty concentrating or thinking clearly.
- Rapid Heartbeat (Tachycardia): The heart may beat faster to compensate for low blood pressure.
- Pale Skin: A pallor or paleness of the skin.
- Cold, Clammy Skin: Skin may feel cold and moist due to decreased blood circulation.
- Fainting (Syncope): In severe cases, hypotension can lead to loss of consciousness.
- Difficulty Breathing: Shallow or labored breathing may occur as the body struggles to maintain oxygen levels.
What are the risk factors of low blood pressure (hypotension)?
The risk factors of hypotension, or low blood pressure, can result from a variety of factors, both temporary and chronic.
Several risk factors and underlying conditions can contribute to the development of hypotension. See below.
- Age: Older adults are more prone to orthostatic and postprandial hypotension.
- Medications: Certain drugs, such as antihypertensives, diuretics, and alpha-blockers, can lower blood pressure.
- Dehydration: Insufficient fluid intake reduces blood volume, leading to low blood pressure.
- Pregnancy: Hormonal changes can cause a drop in blood pressure during pregnancy.
- Heart Conditions: Heart problems like bradycardia, heart valve disorders, or heart failure can result in hypotension.
- Neurological Disorders: Conditions like Parkinson’s disease or multiple system atrophy may affect blood pressure regulation.
- Endocrine Disorders: Hypotension can be associated with thyroid disorders, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetes.
- Nutritional Deficiencies: A lack of essential nutrients, particularly B12 and folate, can contribute to low blood pressure.
- Anemia: Reduced red blood cell count affects oxygen-carrying capacity and can lead to hypotension.
What are the causes of low blood pressure (hypotension)?
The causes of low blood pressure (hypotension) can be attributed to various underlying health conditions in most of the cases. These factors can lead to a drop in blood pressure and result in hypotension.
Common causes are listed below.
- Dehydration, which reduces blood volume.
- Medications such as antihypertensives or diuretics.
- Heart conditions like bradycardia or heart valve disorders.
- Pregnancy, causing hormonal changes.
- Neurological disorders like Parkinson’s disease.
- Endocrine issues such as thyroid disorders or adrenal insufficiency.
- Nutritional deficiencies, particularly B12 or folate.
- Anemia, reducing oxygen-carrying capacity.
- Blood loss due to injury or internal bleeding.
- Allergic reactions leading to anaphylaxis.
- Sepsis, a severe infection impacting blood pressure regulation.
- Dysautonomia, affecting the autonomic nervous system.
How is a low blood pressure (hypotension) diagnosed?
Diagnosing hypotension involves a series of assessments and tests to identify the underlying causes and severity of low blood pressure.
Medical professionals use various methods and criteria to make an accurate diagnosis.
- Medical History: Gathering information about the patient’s health, medications, and symptoms.
- Physical Examination: Checking for signs of low blood pressure like pale skin, rapid heart rate, or orthostatic hypotension.
- Blood Pressure Measurement: Repeated readings to confirm low blood pressure.
- Orthostatic Testing: Monitoring blood pressure while changing positions from lying to standing.
- Laboratory Tests: Blood tests to check for anemia, hormonal imbalances, or electrolyte abnormalities.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): Evaluating heart function.
- Echocardiogram: Assessing heart structure and function.
- Holter Monitor: Recording heart activity over 24-48 hours.
- Tilt Table Test: Evaluating orthostatic hypotension.
- Additional Tests: Depending on suspected causes, further assessments may include imaging studies, autonomic function tests, or cardiac catheterization.
How to check blood pressure at home?
Checking blood pressure at home is a straightforward process with the right equipment and technique.
Regular monitoring provides valuable insights into one’s cardiovascular health and helps in early detection of potential issues.
- Acquire a digital blood pressure monitor from a reputable brand.
- Sit comfortably in a quiet room, resting for about five minutes before taking a reading.
- Place the cuff on the upper arm, ensuring it’s neither too tight nor too loose.
- Keep the arm at heart level, resting it on a table or armrest.
- Turn on the monitor and follow the device’s instructions to start the measurement.
- Remain still and silent during the process.
- Record the reading, noting both the systolic (top number) and diastolic (bottom number) values.
- It’s advisable to take readings at the same time each day and maintain a log for reference during medical consultations.
Which is the best and accurate blood pressure monitor to use at home?
Finding the best home blood pressure monitor in today’s internet market flooded with technology is a challenging task.
While you may find cheap options online, the reproducibility of results is a big question mark. This could sometimes mean life or death, and that’s why you need a clinically valid product that is no less than smart!
The three best recommendations from the internet are below.
The Oxiline Pressure X Pro is an accurate at-home blood pressure monitor powered by a superior VIBRA TX sensor and boasts a user-friendly interface. It logs readings automatically, syncs with Apple and Android devices, and offers a lifetime warranty.
The CheckMe BP2 is a compact blood pressure monitor with EKG capabilities. It pairs with the ViHealth App, offering BP and EKG readings in 30 seconds. Features include an OLED screen, Bluetooth, and AI-ECG detection of irregular heart conditions. A reliable and efficient heart health tool.
The QardioArm is an intuitive at-home blood pressure monitor compatible with iOS and Android. It is a sleek and lightweight product with superior energy efficiency. It offers clear readings, visualizes data on a color-coded app graph, and stores historical data.
What are the treatments for hypotension?
Treatment for hypotension focuses on addressing the underlying causes, managing symptoms, and preventing complications.
Several approaches and strategies are employed to manage low blood pressure effectively.
- Fluid Replacement: For hypovolemia and dehydration, intravenous fluids or increased fluid intake can help raise blood volume.
- Medication Adjustment: Review and adjust medications that may be contributing to low blood pressure.
- Compression Stockings: Wearing compression stockings can prevent blood pooling in the legs and improve circulation.
- Lifestyle Changes: Increasing salt intake, staying hydrated, and eating smaller, more frequent meals can help.
- Counterpressure Maneuvers: Techniques like crossing legs while seated can counteract orthostatic hypotension.
- Medications: In some cases, medications like fludrocortisone or midodrine may be prescribed to raise blood pressure.
- Physical Therapy: A physical therapist can recommend exercises to improve muscle tone and circulation.
- Management of Underlying Conditions: Treating the root causes, such as heart conditions or hormonal imbalances.
- Monitor Blood Pressure: Regular monitoring helps track progress and adjust treatment as needed.
How to treat hypotension at home?
Yes, you can treat hypotension at home, and it involves simple lifestyle adjustments and self-care practices to alleviate symptoms and improve blood pressure stability.
Make sure you are conscious and don’t face any difficulty, else seek medical attention.
Here are some steps you can take.
- Stay Hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids, especially water, to maintain adequate blood volume.
- Increase salt intake in your diet moderately, unless advised otherwise by a healthcare provider.
- Opt for smaller, more frequent meals to prevent postprandial hypotension.
- Limit or avoid alcohol consumption, as it can contribute to low blood pressure.
- Wear compression stockings to improve blood flow in the legs.
- Elevate your legs when sitting or lying down to prevent blood pooling.
- Engage in a regular exercise routine to improve overall cardiovascular health.
- Be cautious with hot baths and showers, as hot water can lead to vasodilation and exacerbate hypotension.
- Practice relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation, or yoga to manage stress.
- Keep track of your blood pressure and consult a healthcare provider for guidance on monitoring and treatment.
What are the complications of hypotension?
Complications of hypotension can arise, particularly when it remains untreated or inadequately managed. These complications may affect different organ systems and overall health.
Some potential complications of hypotension are listed below.
- Fainting (syncope) or loss of consciousness.
- Falls and injuries resulting from dizziness or fainting.
- Cognitive impairment due to reduced blood flow to the brain.
- Impaired kidney function and potential kidney damage.
- Cardiovascular problems, including chest pain or heart arrhythmias.
- Shock, a life-threatening condition with inadequate blood flow to vital organs.
- Vision issues such as blurred or tunnel vision.
- Difficulty concentrating and mental fatigue.
- Limited ability to perform daily activities.
How to prevent a hypotension?
Preventing hypotension involves adopting various lifestyle choices and strategies to maintain stable blood pressure levels.
Here are some effective ways to prevent hypotension.
- Stay Hydrated: Ensure you drink an adequate amount of fluids daily to maintain blood volume.
- Balanced Diet: Consume a well-rounded diet with sufficient salt, if not restricted by a healthcare provider
- Small, Frequent Meals: Opt for regular, smaller meals to prevent postprandial hypotension.
- Limit Alcohol: Reduce alcohol intake, as excessive consumption can lower blood pressure.
- Exercise Regularly: Engage in regular physical activity to improve cardiovascular health.
- Gradual Position Changes: When getting up, rise slowly to avoid orthostatic hypotension.
- Compression Stockings: Consider wearing compression stockings to improve blood flow in the legs.
- Manage Stress: Practice relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation, or yoga.
- Momtaz YA, Hamid TA, Haron SA, Bagat MF, Mohammadi F. Prevalence of hypotension and its association with cognitive function among older adults. Aging Ment Health. 2018 Apr;22(4):447-452. doi: 10.1080/13607863.2016.1268093. Epub 2017 Jan 6. PMID: 28060530.
- Antza, C. et al. Masked and white coat hypertension, the double trouble of large arteries: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension 22, 802 (2020).
- Looking for Trouble: Identifying and Treating Hypotension. (2019). P & T : a peer-reviewed journal for formulary management, 44(9), 563–565.
- Hypotension: A Clinical Care Review. (n.d.). Retrieved September 14, 2023, from https://www.uspharmacist.com/article/hypotension-a-clinical-care-review
- Hildrum, B., Mykletun, A., Stordal, E., Bjelland, I., Dahl, A. A., & Holmen, J. (2006). Association of low blood pressure with anxiety and depression: The Nord‐Trøndelag Health Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 61(1), 53-58. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.044966
- Moradi, M. T., Asadi-Samani, M., & Bahmani, M. (n.d.). Hypotensive medicinal plants according to Ethnobotanical evidence of Iran: A Systematic Review.
- Chen, A., & Basso, O. (2007). Does low maternal blood pressure during pregnancy increase the risk of perinatal death? Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 18(5), 619. https://doi.org/10.1097/ede.0b013e31812713e6
- Banker, A., Bell, C., Gupta-Malhotra, M., & Samuels, J. (2016). Blood pressure percentile charts to identify high or low blood pressure in children. BMC Pediatrics, 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12887-016-0633-7